This chapter introduces the context within which the ‘five techniques’ were used in Northern Ireland. Its main focus is how and why these techniques came to be used there. It was the military’s interrogation experts and policy-makers’ belief that the ‘five techniques’ would improve the effectiveness of interrogation, that led to the use of the techniques in Northern Ireland. The policy-makers who were involved in this decision are identified in this chapter. Details are also given of the form the techniques took.