The Iraq case is the best-known of the three examined in this book because of the recent press coverage it has received. The ‘five techniques’ were used in a Temporary Detention Facility in Basra in September 2003. This episode resulted in the death of Baha Mousa, one of the detainees involved. This chapter focuses on how, despite the 1972 ban, British soldiers came to use the techniques at the Temporary Detention Facility. The techniques were used in a markedly different way than in Aden and Northern Ireland: they were used for a different combination of reasons and were not the result of efforts to transfer expertise gained in interrogation in similar environments.
This introductory chapter discusses the theme of this volume, which is about the connection between the United Nations' (UN) evolving approach to intra-state conflicts and the value system of the international community. This study takes issue with the relatively reductionist explanations of what the UN is and how it relates to peace and security. It explores the interest-norm complexes within which the cases in the Congo, Cyprus, Angola, and Cambodia were handled by the UN. This volume shows how relevant actors' normative preferences were resolved in specific peacekeeping environments where the UN was especially active in addressing intra-state conflicts.