Jack Lawrence Luzkow
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Social democracy forgets its identity
What really ended in 1989?
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The collapse of communism in the Soviet Union in 1989 precipitated triumphalist hurrahs from Francis Fukuyama, who was moved to project the "End of History" as such, and the global triumph of liberal democracy. Social democrats had always taken measures to distinguish themselves as the democratic alternative and asserted their willingness to compromise. The response of New Labour in the UK, Left Democrats in the US, German Social Democrats (SDP), and to a lesser extent the Swedish Social Democrats (SAP), was predictable. The German model of the welfare state was dedicated to the building of a modern society based on social insurance and class collaboration. The SAP government admitted that it had not been able to protect social welfare as promised following its return to power in 1994, but the state of social services became the dominant item on its agenda in 1997.

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The great forgetting

The past, present and future of social democracy and the welfare state


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