The historiography of the Reformation since about 1980 has developed against a background of changes in the academy itself as well as of new approaches to the subject matter. Newisms became prominent from the 1950s onwards: modernism, postmodernism, deconstructionism, feminism and receptionism being five of the most important for our subject. To the modern historian touched by postmodernism there may appear to be a certain charming naivety about A.G. Dickens's and Patrick Collinson's attitude to 'evidence'. Although debates about postmodernism gripped the profession from the 1970s onwards, modernism was not defeated but lived on in modified yet recognizable form into the twenty-first century. Most scholarly attention has focused on Protestantism in the Elizabethan and early Stuart years. English Reformation was also brought into close contact with European movements by spasmodic negotiations with the German Schmalkaldic League.