The Turkish question: Islamist, communist or nationalist?
in Turkey facing east
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The ‘Turkish question’ is historically related to the possibility of establishing an Islamist, socialist or nationalist state. This chapter emphasises the importance of another frequently neglected international event, the Baku Congress of 1920, which was as the First Congress of the Peoples of the East. It explores the extent to which the ideologies of Islamism, communism and nationalism were in competition when deciding the future of the Turkish state. In particular, it explains why the nationalist group was not the only potential ally of the Bolsheviks and why the Baku Congress became the first important international platform to discuss the Turkish question among the other issues of the Eastern peoples. It concludes by highlighting the leadership rivalry among the pan-Islamist Enver Pasha, Communist Mustafa Suphi and nationalism Mustafa Kemal to establish their authority in both domestic and foreign affairs.

Turkey facing east

Islam, modernity and foreign policy


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