This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book explores the state of research on children born of war (CBOW) taking into account, among others, work of historians, social scientists, psychiatrists, lawyers and ethicists. It examines the situation of the so-called Bui Doi, children of American soldiers and Vietnamese mothers conceived during the Vietnam War. The book investigates the experiences of CBOW in the former Yugoslavia. It considers the relatively recent phenomenon of children fathered by United Nation (UN) peacekeeping personnel as a starting point for a discussion of current developments of the international discourse on CBOW. The book describes the specific nature of the civil war, with its ethnic dimension and the widespread use of gender-based violence (GBV) during the war in Bosnia.