Urbanisation and development
Class, gender and race
in Following Franco
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This first of three chapters to explore the competition between Madrid and Barcelona suggests that the Catalan capital became Spain’s most cosmopolitan and leading cultural city as a result of the creative tension between class and national(ist) identity. Against the backdrop of mass rural migration to cities, animosity between the capitals of Spain and Catalonia is shown to have disguised complex and frequently contradictory vectors of oppression. A range of media, from the novels of Manuel Vázquez Montalbán and Juan Marsè to the quinqui films, are discussed. Madrid and Barcelona faced challenges hardly unique to Spain, but they were often exaggerated by the dictatorship’s ad hoc modernisation through which poverty became mobile and only later mobilised.

Following Franco

Spanish culture and politics in transition, 1962–92

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