This chapter looks at the role of covenanting in the early modern Scottish
presbyterian tradition in establishing ideas of Scotland as a godly nation.
The chapter argues that the Scottish understanding of covenanting, based on
deep roots in the Reformed theology of the Scottish Reformation, was
deployed by clergy and theologians to argue that the Scots were a people in
covenant with God similar to that of the biblical Jews. Such arguments were
applied to argue that, even if not all Scots were the elect of God, the
nation was still a godly nation. The chapter traces this idea through the
Scottish Reformation into the Covenanter revolution of the late 1630s and
1640s. It explores the decline of the idea of national covenanting in face
of the Cromwellian conquest and the Restoration of the Stuart monarchy and
episcopal forms of church polity in the later seventeenth century.