Citizenship on the move
Refugee communities and the state in France, 1914–18
in Europe on the move
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This chapter considers how models of republican citizenship shaped France's refugee population. Existing historiography suggests that citizenship may not have been a determining category for French refugees who, it is argued, were alienated by the state. The chapter focuses on French refugees who, although displaced, remained within their country of citizenship throughout the war. It explores the internal dynamics of refugee groups, and in particular how geographic patterns of displacement facilitated the preservation of local communities and identities in exile. The chapter also considers how membership of these local communities helped refugees manage the terms of their displacement as citizens of the French Republic. Refugees, like all citizens, had obligations towards the state. The cornerstone of the national welfare system organised for refugees was the 'allocation', a daily sum distributed on a means-tested basis.

Europe on the move

Refugees in the era of the Great War

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