Golgotha
The retreat of the Serbian army and civilians in 1915–16
in Europe on the move
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'Golgotha' vividly illustrates how the relationship between state and society was transformed due to the Great War. The consequences of the fighting in 1912-13 were palpable, when fierce clashes took place between the Serbian army and the Ottoman auxiliary troops composed mostly of local Albanians. Two thirds of the retreating soldiers and civilians passed through Montenegro on their way to the Albanian coast. Almost all military and civilian columns passing through Albania participated in skirmishes of varying intensity and suffered casualties accordingly. The island of Corfu was the political and military focal point of Serbia in exile, but Serbian civilians were to be found grouped in North Africa, France and elsewhere in Europe. The 'Kosovo Day' campaign held in the UK in June 1916 presented a striking illustration of pro-Serb sentiment.

Europe on the move

Refugees in the era of the Great War

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