The refugee question in Bulgaria before, during and after the First World War
in Europe on the move
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Bulgaria stands out as a specific case in relation to population displacement during the First World War for several reasons. This chapter focuses on the circumstances of displacement, the reception and settlement of refugees, and the state's attempts to address the political, economic and social shock of accepting thousands of refugees from the lost territories. It outlines the centrality of the refugee issue to the development of the modern Bulgarian state, particularly after the Balkan Wars when it occupied a central role both internally and externally. The chapter also focuses on three main episodes: before 1912, when a quarter of a million refugees had already fled to Bulgaria, whose population was around 4.5 million in 1912; between 1913 and 1918, when 120,000 refugees settled in the country; and in the years 1919-25 during which time Bulgaria witnessed the influx of an additional 180,000 refugees.

Europe on the move

Refugees in the era of the Great War

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