Becoming and unbecoming refugees
The long ordeal of Balkan Muslims, 1912-34
in Europe on the move
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Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria wrested large territories from the Ottomans and expelled hundreds of thousands of Muslims from those lands. This chapter discusses the consequences of the atrocities, in order to address the overarching question of how Muslim refugees during the Balkan Wars experienced their flight and arrival in the Ottoman Empire. It examines the expulsion of Ottoman Muslims in the Balkans and their ordeal in the rump Ottoman state. The violence of the two Balkan Wars, the ensuing population exchanges and expulsions, the First World War, the Armenian Genocide, the Greco-Turkish War, and the 1923 great population exchange occurred within one decade. The violence resulted in unprecedented refugee streams, especially of Muslims to the Ottoman Empire. The chapter also discusses how their experiences as refugees influenced them, how they were received by the host population, and which social problems they faced as refugees.

Europe on the move

Refugees in the era of the Great War

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