The new ethics of Frankenstein
Responsibility and obedience in I, Robot and X-Men: First Class
in Adapting Frankenstein
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In a sense, indirect adaptations of Frankenstein, such as those observed in I, Robot (2004) and X-Men: First Class (2011) have more freedom to complicate and modernise Shelley’s text, since these adaptations transpose her characters and conflicts into fresh contexts with multiple variations. In the films I, Robot and X-Men: First Class Shelley’s concept of creation expands from its common definition (creation out of nothing or out of pre-existing parts) to a broader sense that includes modification or influence. As indirect adaptations of Frankenstein, these films have the freedom to adumbrate a number of latent ethical questions that Shelley’s novel never fully articulates. Hence, such films take the conversation on Frankenstein in unexpected and novel directions.

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