Bryan Fanning
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In defence of methodological nationalism
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In 1992, Francis Fukuyama declared the end of history, suggesting that with the fall of the Berlin Wall, liberalism had triumphed as the political and economic paradigm across a globalised world. Methodological nationalism is a term used by sociologists to refer to social inquiry which is bounded by political borders. Nationalism, as an ideology, assumed that humanity is naturally divided into a limited number of nations. Nationalism on the inside organises themselves as nation-states and, on the outside, set boundaries to distinguish themselves from other nation-states. Sociologists who have focused on nationalism have emphasised shifts from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft within national containers. Marxists envisaged that nationalism and patriotism would be swept aside by proletarian internationalism. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels gave some thought to how Irish nationalism might help to bring about socialism.

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