The ethnic rivalry between the British and the Boers is one of the major narratives of South African and British imperial history. This chapter talks about the 'Cape Dutch' and De Zuid-Afrikaan does not intend to uproot this traditional narrative completely, but rather to interrogate and problematise it. In the cases of the Cape Dutch and the Irish Catholics of New Zealand, so-called 'outsiders' were themselves the authors of imperial culture and citizenship. Much recent and important work has identified the investment and contribution to the British imperial project by the Scottish, Welsh and Irish who administered, fought for, evangelised in and settled the British empire. The invention of Afrikanerdom during the late nineteenth and the twentieth centuries was as much a response to the cultural potency of a British loyalism as it was a function of opposition to British injustices.