This chapter describes the relationships between Israeli goals of political control and population management and the political rights which were granted to the Palestinians. The ethnic representation of the various ethnicities meant enhancing and solidifying the constructed ethnic identities at the expense of the more inclusive Palestinian affinity. The role of the Military Government and other state apparatuses in ensuring Palestinians' vote for Mapai was clear to those in charge of the surveillance apparatuses. Although elevated to their position by those in charge of the surveillance apparatuses, Palestinian Knesset members (MKs) were referred as the representatives of the Arab minority. The Israeli Communist Party (ICP) occupied a unique position in Israeli politics. It was a Jewish-Arab party, though unlike other Jewish-Arab settings such as municipalities of mixed cities, student unions or the Histadrut, it was not dominated by Mapai, and within it, the Palestinians were not secluded.