Paul Fouracre
Search for other papers by Paul Fouracre in
Current site
Google Scholar
Lights and social formation in the central Middle Ages
Abstract only
Log-in for full text

Here the social consequences of maintaining the lights are examined in greater detail. The discussion builds on the results of Chapter 4. At issue are two kinds of people: censuales, or cerocensuales in Germany and colliberti in France. Were they both hereditary tribute payers, formed as a group by the need to supply the Church? A lengthy discussion concludes that the censuales were a group called into being by the needs of the Church in this way, but that the colliberti were not. The discussion contributes to a long-running debate about the nature of servitude, manumission and obligation. The chapter ends by looking at the conditions under which the censuales lived and how their standing changed as towns grew and social distinctions were relaxed.

  • Collapse
  • Expand

All of MUP's digital content including Open Access books and journals is now available on manchesterhive.


Eternal light and earthly concerns

Belief and the shaping of medieval society


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 207 122 1
Full Text Views 33 21 11
PDF Downloads 39 19 6