This chapter presents a case study of Japan’s ICT regulation after the 1980s. It first reviews the development of Japan’s ICT sector, starting from telecommunications liberalisation in 1985. This review is followed by an exploration of power relations between key actors including those within the core executive. Paying attention to how power relations have changed among core executive actors, the third section explores how the core executive in the ICT sector has transformed its internal power relations by exploring key actors – Cabinet ministers, party politicians outside the Cabinet and civil servants – and structures within the core executive. Two core issues emerge in the analysis: first, the relationship between Cabinet ministers and party politicians outside the Cabinet including those in the ruling party; and secondly, the partisan confrontation between the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ).
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book attempts to convey the different sociological contexts for how contemporary anarchist theory and practice is to be understood. It concentrates on the issue of broadening the parameters of how anarchist theory and practice is conceptualised. The question of individual liberty and collective needs raises an equally important anarchist principle: equating the means of an action with its ends. The book compares the major philosophical differences and strategies between the classical period and the contemporary anti-capitalist movements. It assesses the viability of libertarian education, a century on from the life and work of Spanish writer and activist Francisco Ferrer and finds considerable evidence for the endurance of these ideals.
This chapter illustrates the importance of broadening the understanding of social anarchism. Social anarchism has shifted its ground as it has embraced some elements of poststructuralist philosophy. This shift in territory from social to poststructuralist anarchism is most noticeable and particularly important at two levels of theory. The first, and the one that underscores the others, is the poststructuralist denunciation of foundationalist discourses or narratives. The second shift in theoretical territory is less pronounced but nonetheless real. The chapter suggests that, when situated alongside the practices of new social movements associated with the anticapitalist protests, the poststructuralist perspective affords insight into how new modes of anarchist practice are emerging. It also highlights how anarchist theory and practice is evolving into something distinct and is, at the same time, nurturing contemporary modes of resistance against traditional social, political and economic forms of oppression.