The JFTC’s independence is unusual within Japan’s political tradition. As demonstrated in the 1977 Anti-monopoly Act (AMA) amendment, the commission’s independence emerged as a notable element characterising policy-making in anti-monopoly regulation. The prioritisation of the sector after the 1990s gradually changed the conditions surrounding and shaping anti-monopoly regulation. This change had the potential to reframe the JFTC and the sector including the commission’s independence and state capacity within the sector. Prompted by the above observations, this chapter examines the JFTC’s independence and state capacity within the sector. It first pinpoints the independent characteristics of the JFTC. What follows is an assessment of the impact of transformation through an analysis of the capacity of the state in anti-monopoly regulation. The third section pulls together the points raised in both the previous chapter and this chapter and considers the nature of state transformation in anti-monopoly regulation after the 1980s.
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book attempts to convey the different sociological contexts for how contemporary anarchist theory and practice is to be understood. It concentrates on the issue of broadening the parameters of how anarchist theory and practice is conceptualised. The question of individual liberty and collective needs raises an equally important anarchist principle: equating the means of an action with its ends. The book compares the major philosophical differences and strategies between the classical period and the contemporary anti-capitalist movements. It assesses the viability of libertarian education, a century on from the life and work of Spanish writer and activist Francisco Ferrer and finds considerable evidence for the endurance of these ideals.
This chapter illustrates the importance of broadening the understanding of social anarchism. Social anarchism has shifted its ground as it has embraced some elements of poststructuralist philosophy. This shift in territory from social to poststructuralist anarchism is most noticeable and particularly important at two levels of theory. The first, and the one that underscores the others, is the poststructuralist denunciation of foundationalist discourses or narratives. The second shift in theoretical territory is less pronounced but nonetheless real. The chapter suggests that, when situated alongside the practices of new social movements associated with the anticapitalist protests, the poststructuralist perspective affords insight into how new modes of anarchist practice are emerging. It also highlights how anarchist theory and practice is evolving into something distinct and is, at the same time, nurturing contemporary modes of resistance against traditional social, political and economic forms of oppression.