The Welsh borderlands in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
in Writing the Welsh borderlands in Anglo-Saxon England
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The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a major historical source for the later Anglo-Saxon period, depicts the Welsh borderlands acting as an independent political force throughout the eleventh century. Moreover, a pattern of sustained political alliance between Mercia and northern Wales is evident in the tenth century within a corpus of mostly Welsh historical sources. This pattern of alliance continues in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle throughout the eleventh century, across the Norman Conquest. At the moment of the Norman arrival in England, the Welsh borderlands were a significant political force in Anglo-Saxon England. Political alliance in the Welsh borderlands is further evident in the coordinated attacks by Earl Aelfgar of Mercia and King Gruffudd ap Llywelyn described in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle's annals for 1055 and 1058. The circumstances of Gruffudd's death underscore how Anglo-Saxon England perceived the Welsh borderlands as a politically aligned region in the eleventh century.

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