The memory of the Holocaust is intensively used, often as a theoretical and practical yardstick, by both Muslim migrant minorities and the European 'white' majority. The fate of European Jewry in World War II is highly discernible in the perceptions and mutual relations between Europe and its Muslim migrants. Several European leaders supported David Cameron's views about the detrimental results of cultural fragmentation. Jewish Holocaust survivors have a perfect justification to hate and act violently against the European state because of past atrocities; they do not, insists Finkielkraut. The school curriculum is one battlefield on which differences between Muslim migrants and the European state are brought to the fore. The situation becomes even more complex and predictions about future Jewish-Muslim relations on the continent become more uncertain when Muslim and Arab immigrants are elected to public and leadership positions in European countries.
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book attempts to convey the different sociological contexts for how contemporary anarchist theory and practice is to be understood. It concentrates on the issue of broadening the parameters of how anarchist theory and practice is conceptualised. The question of individual liberty and collective needs raises an equally important anarchist principle: equating the means of an action with its ends. The book compares the major philosophical differences and strategies between the classical period and the contemporary anti-capitalist movements. It assesses the viability of libertarian education, a century on from the life and work of Spanish writer and activist Francisco Ferrer and finds considerable evidence for the endurance of these ideals.
This chapter illustrates the importance of broadening the understanding of social anarchism. Social anarchism has shifted its ground as it has embraced some elements of poststructuralist philosophy. This shift in territory from social to poststructuralist anarchism is most noticeable and particularly important at two levels of theory. The first, and the one that underscores the others, is the poststructuralist denunciation of foundationalist discourses or narratives. The second shift in theoretical territory is less pronounced but nonetheless real. The chapter suggests that, when situated alongside the practices of new social movements associated with the anticapitalist protests, the poststructuralist perspective affords insight into how new modes of anarchist practice are emerging. It also highlights how anarchist theory and practice is evolving into something distinct and is, at the same time, nurturing contemporary modes of resistance against traditional social, political and economic forms of oppression.