The emergence of modern European and Western philosophies, liberal democracy, modern social achievements and scientific discoveries occurred largely without Muslim contributions. The presence of millions of Muslims amid non-Muslim majorities has forced Muslim theologians to compose the Fiqh al-Aqalliyat, the jurisprudence pertaining to the solution of religious questions and difficulties encountered by minorities. If a Muslim woman is working in education or studying in a non-Muslim country that bans the hijab and risks punishment for wearing it, then her job or studies are more important than wearing the hijab. Thus, when French law prohibited veiled and hijabed women from studying in French universities, the Muslim thinker and theologian Tariq Ramadan permitted them to obey the law of the land (Dina de-malchuta Dina!) and remove the hijab. Immigration from Muslim countries to the Dar al-Harb and to a life of minority status is presently the fate of many millions of Muslims.
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book attempts to convey the different sociological contexts for how contemporary anarchist theory and practice is to be understood. It concentrates on the issue of broadening the parameters of how anarchist theory and practice is conceptualised. The question of individual liberty and collective needs raises an equally important anarchist principle: equating the means of an action with its ends. The book compares the major philosophical differences and strategies between the classical period and the contemporary anti-capitalist movements. It assesses the viability of libertarian education, a century on from the life and work of Spanish writer and activist Francisco Ferrer and finds considerable evidence for the endurance of these ideals.
This chapter illustrates the importance of broadening the understanding of social anarchism. Social anarchism has shifted its ground as it has embraced some elements of poststructuralist philosophy. This shift in territory from social to poststructuralist anarchism is most noticeable and particularly important at two levels of theory. The first, and the one that underscores the others, is the poststructuralist denunciation of foundationalist discourses or narratives. The second shift in theoretical territory is less pronounced but nonetheless real. The chapter suggests that, when situated alongside the practices of new social movements associated with the anticapitalist protests, the poststructuralist perspective affords insight into how new modes of anarchist practice are emerging. It also highlights how anarchist theory and practice is evolving into something distinct and is, at the same time, nurturing contemporary modes of resistance against traditional social, political and economic forms of oppression.