Muslims and Jews may be said to share certain basic beliefs and similarities, the most obvious ones being monotheism and various ritual elements. Violent attacks on Jews have many ramifications. Where weapons have been used in such incidents, Jews in many French cities commonly remove their skull-caps when in public; reports repeatedly describe Muslims attacks on French Jews who wear Orthodox garb. In parallel, anti-Israel de-legitimisation has risen sharply in Europe, emanating from the Left and Muslim communities. On the one hand, the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, an event clearly external to Europe, arouses anti-Israel and anti-Jewish expressions and provokes European Muslims to take action. On the other hand, the rise of anti-Semitism in Europe is strongly associated with developments within Europe. Muslim educational and cultural anti-Jewish issues in Europe can and do lead to actual violence and terrorism.
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book attempts to convey the different sociological contexts for how contemporary anarchist theory and practice is to be understood. It concentrates on the issue of broadening the parameters of how anarchist theory and practice is conceptualised. The question of individual liberty and collective needs raises an equally important anarchist principle: equating the means of an action with its ends. The book compares the major philosophical differences and strategies between the classical period and the contemporary anti-capitalist movements. It assesses the viability of libertarian education, a century on from the life and work of Spanish writer and activist Francisco Ferrer and finds considerable evidence for the endurance of these ideals.
This chapter illustrates the importance of broadening the understanding of social anarchism. Social anarchism has shifted its ground as it has embraced some elements of poststructuralist philosophy. This shift in territory from social to poststructuralist anarchism is most noticeable and particularly important at two levels of theory. The first, and the one that underscores the others, is the poststructuralist denunciation of foundationalist discourses or narratives. The second shift in theoretical territory is less pronounced but nonetheless real. The chapter suggests that, when situated alongside the practices of new social movements associated with the anticapitalist protests, the poststructuralist perspective affords insight into how new modes of anarchist practice are emerging. It also highlights how anarchist theory and practice is evolving into something distinct and is, at the same time, nurturing contemporary modes of resistance against traditional social, political and economic forms of oppression.