Addresses, abhorrences and associations
Subscriptional culture and memory in the 1680s
in Loyalty, memory and public opinion in England, 1658–​1727
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This chapter examines the most intense period of addressing activity, the 1680s. During this period, thousands of loyal addresses were sent to both Charles II and James II. The discussion of addressing activity was informed by the memory of its Cromwellian origins. This was used by some critics to delegitimise addressing as a political form. In contrast, Court loyalists attacked other subscriptional forms (especially oaths and petitions) as vehicles for conspiracy. However, these arguments concealed a broader consensus on both the legitimacy of addressing and the need for some legal limits on popular political activity.

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