Canal colonies
in Servants of the empire
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During the political debates connected with consideration of the 1900 Land Alienation Bill, Viceroy Curzon, and the Punjab governor of the time, Sir Charles Rivaz, defended the government decision. Indeed land revenue matters relating to Punjab were often treated as 'Simla affairs', as they were usually considered at summer and autumn sessions of the Viceroy's Council. The year of the 1887 act saw the start of construction of the Chenab canal headworks which was a major Productive work. The Chenab canal supplied water to colonies which were to extend to 2,859 square miles by 1906. Works on other canal colonies were underway towards the end of that century, particularly the Jhelum irrigation canal, a project on much the same model as the Chenab. Famine was racking large parts of India but Punjab, through good management, managed to avoid the worst effects.

Servants of the empire

The Irish in Punjab, 1881–1921

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