Material tokens of ethnicity
in Scottishness and Irishness in New Zealand since 1840
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This chapter explores the material tokens of ethnic identity for the Irish and the Scots in New Zealand that they or the others perceived as Irish or Scottish. Scottish music and dancing were also connected with formal societies such as the Caledonian Society. Irish music took a prominent role in various festivals in New Zealand. Dress and music were linked in Andrew Kinross' poem for the second annual gathering of the Highland Society of Southland. If migrants from Scotland and Northern Ireland were seen to share the festivity of Halloween, New Year was the festive occasion which set Scots apart from their fellow migrants. The connection of food with the celebration of important festivals and events has been identified by Mary C. Waters in her study of the descent group in the United States.

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