This chapter focuses on the early record of return migration. It also focuses on how return was affected by new modes of transport; the relation to seasonal migration, and American industry's use of return migration. Until recently the idea of emigrants returning has rarely been broached by historians of emigration, either in the major receiving countries of North America or in Europe. Snippets of information from the earliest settlement of the Americas indicate that from the beginning, persons emigrating were returning to their homelands. By the middle of the nineteenth century the phenomenon of temporary emigration had become established in America, as well as Europe. American industry adapted rapidly to the new influx of Europeans seeking immediate work and regular wages rather than a life of struggle on a farm.