Colonialism 'in a Chinese atmosphere'
The Caldwell affair and the perils of collaboration in early colonial Hong Kong
in New frontiers
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The reliance of colonial regimes on local middlemen has become an essential part of any explanation of colonialism, though it is only very recently that the model has been systematically applied to Hong Kong. The Daniel Richard Caldwell affair could hardly have broken out at a more difficult time for the young and problematic British colony at Hong Kong. The career of Caldwell's Chinese counterpart, the notorious Ma-chow Wong, suggested to colonists not only that the Chinese community was being held in a grip of terror but that the government itself was coming increasingly under the control of gangsters. The inquiry into civil service abuses of 1860-61 was conducted by the Governor-in-Council. Caldwell, had been unable to control the gangster informants on whom he relied for intelligence, and his methods of controlling crime had led to serious abuses of power.

New frontiers

Imperialism's new communities in East Asia, 1842-1953

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