Foreigners or outsiders?
Westerners and Chinese Christians in Chongqing, 1870s-1900
in New frontiers
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This chapter deals with an inland rather than a coastal province, and looks at the complexities of relations between the foreign and Chinese communities in a region of this province. It explores the ambiguities of the intense 'anti-foreignism' that led the south-western province of Sichuan to experience the highest incidence of attacks on Westerners and Chinese Christians in all of China. Sichuan during the Qing was a province of Chinese outsiders. The threat that Chinese Christians posed to the economic structure was most visible in Dazu and Chongqing. Some of unknown people, rootless and itinerant, single and unemployed, joined the organised networks of brotherhood societies that challenged the traditional, cultural, economic and political structures. Such challenges would culminate ultimately in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty as the Manchu rulers themselves came to be viewed as foreign outsiders.

New frontiers

Imperialism's new communities in East Asia, 1842-1953

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