This chapter aims to set up the political framework, essential for the years 1933-1945, for a future social and economic analysis. Beginning in 1933, the German community rediscovered a coherent community life. Never before had the Germans been able to assert their national identity with such assurance, in the knowledge that they had the unconditional support of their government. In Shanghai the German community recognised the leading role which the Nazi party held and which everyone, even the other foreign communities, seemed to accept. In Shanghai, although Germans could not get actively involved in the domestic politics of the Reich, they were regularly called upon to express their opinion about German politics through various referendums. Besides the meticulous diplomats, National Socialist propagandists of the German Information Bureau were also active in antisemitic actions in Shanghai.