John A. Schultz
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‘Leaven for the lump’
Canada and Empire settlement, 1918–1939
in Emigrants and empire
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Canada proved at best a reluctant partner in Empire settlement. The premier of Ontario declared that Empire settlement was essential to maintain the 'strength and vitality' of the British Empire and to preserve Canada's dedication to its ideals. By adding a generous leaven of British stock the unassimilated lump of non- Anglo-Saxons could be absorbed and 'Canadianised'. Canada's vast empty spaces demanded an active immigration policy, but one which recognised the problems posed by the large number of aliens. The Boys Training Scheme grew out of the efforts of the Dominions Office to persuade the Canadian government to become more directly involved in the settlement of juveniles. Complaints over the Harvesters Scheme signalled a hardening of Canadian attitudes to assisted settlement. The expanded scheme was financed by the sale of Canadian bonds guaranteed by the British government; Canada would select the settlers, arrange their transport and provide subsequent supervision.

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Emigrants and empire

British settlement in the dominions between the wars


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