How to be religious under liberalism
in Spain in the nineteenth century
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This chapter looks at how a number of religious figures negotiated the relationship between politics and religion in nineteenth-century Spain. It focuses on the role played by four representatives of the Catholic clergy who, for various reasons, attempted to make Christianity compatible with liberalism by devising alternatives to the Church's official opposition to budding forms of political freedom. They were Joaquín Lorenzo Villanueva; Antonio de Aguayo; Fernando Castro y Pajares and José García Mora. Villanueva became a key figure in the Valencian group in the Cortes of Cadiz, where he made crucial contributions to parliamentary debates relating to religious and ecclesiastical issues. Castro's primary objective was to advocate the introduction of religious tolerance into Spanish legislation. Castro accordingly criticized the Moderate government for upholding religious intolerance and depriving Spain of the beneficial effects derived from religious freedom.

Spain in the nineteenth century

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