For some members of the political elite, the public’s verdict on the 1975
referendum meant the issue was over at least for the foreseeable future. For
others, however, the debate continued. A large number of Labour left-wing
anti-Marketeers were unhappy at how the defeat on Europe was followed by a
general offensive by the leadership against the left of the party on other
issues. This chapter examines the events following the outcome of the
referendum including the resurgence of the Labour left as a consequence of
the 1979 general election defeat. Also analysed are the Labour Party
conferences held in 1981 which were dominated by the left. These conferences
formed the cornerstone of policy for the forthcoming 1983 general election,
and for some right-wingers in the Labour Party, provided the catalyst for
the Social Democratic Party. This chapter focuses primarily on the Labour
Party, yet it was the Conservatives that was to be the party most deeply
divided over the issue of Europe.
This chapter auto-critiques the editors early work (Crozier, Practising Colonial Medicine, 2007) for studying the Colonial Medical Service as a distinct entity, founded and run on shared principles, staffed by Europeans and micro-managed from Whitehall. The collection of chapters is introduced, particularly emphasising how each essay originally contributes to revising this flawed interpretation. The Colonial Medical Service is argued as being flexibly responsive to local demands, open to negotiation and cooperation with non-governmental partners, and very much different in reality to the unified image that is often assumed. Theoretically this dramatically pushes forward understandings of the history of government medicine in Africa, not least showing scholars that history is always on the move and can be rarely compartmentalised, despite the active public relations agenda of the British colonial government.