Scales of violence
The 1916 Central Asian uprising in the context of wars and revolutions (1914–1923)
in The Central Asian Revolt of 1916
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This chapter places the 1916 Central Asian uprising and its repression in the context of the longer “continuum of violence” that included World War I, the 1917 revolutions, and the “wars after the war” that took place during a period of competitive state-building. Following Peter Holquist, it argues that there was a direct connection between the forms of military violence against non-combatants that became pervasive during World War I and the “eliminationist” violence waged by the tsarist army against Kazakhs and Kyrgyz in particular areas of Semirech’e. By focusing on the main “peak violence” area during the 1916 uprising, Przheval’sk district, this chapter will show the role that the cross-border opium trade with Xinjiang played in unleashing mass violence in the region.

The Central Asian Revolt of 1916

A collapsing empire in the age of war and revolution

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