Conclusion
in Masculinities, militarisation and the End Conscription Campaign
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Conscientious objection was an iconic individual stand performed by white men which challenged apartheid governance. It also destabilised the ability of the state to claim that conscription was an essential and unremarkable aspect of white South African life. The banning of the End Conscription Campaign (ECC) failed to prevent further individual white men from publicly objecting to military service for political reasons. The ECC's politics of gender was apparent in its internal organisational dynamics, public repertoires of action and the multiple discourses it deployed against conscription. The state's responses to objectors and the wider ECC reflected the multiple, fluid and shifting layers of the state and its agencies, and the reality of a state and political system mired in crisis. The homophobic and sexist stigmatisation of objectors and ECC activists revealed the gendered and heteronormative nature of conscription and the wider state.

Masculinities, militarisation and the End Conscription Campaign

War resistance in apartheid South Africa

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