Cartographies of disenchantment
in Habermas and European integration
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In this chapter, European novels and other relevant texts are looked at, both as descriptions and embodiments of the zeitgeist - in them are discerned 'cartographies of disenchantment', vying accounts of the causes, consequences and agents of rationalisation. The reductionism of John Gray's approach is evident from his conflation of the Enlightenment's heirs with religious fundamentalists, all of whom are understood to be utopians, and hence quintessentially 'modern'. Traits identifiable with the three continua are listed under the following headings: 'Counter-Enlightenment', 'Cynical Enlightenment' and 'Conservative Enlightenment'. The chapter disputes Gray's conclusions, finding them a useful foil for Jürgen Habermas's more sophisticated account. Antimodernism was discussed by Habermas in the early 1980s. The chapter concludes with a diagrammatic representation of tendencies and configurations critical of modernity.

Habermas and European integration

Social and cultural modernity beyond the nation-state

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