Niilo Kauppi
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Social and constitutional integration in Finland and France
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European integration has numerous effects on key national institutions, national constitutions and national political personnel in all European Union member-states. In response to European integration, the venerated École nationale d'administration (ENA) has been partially relocated from Paris to Strasbourg. Because French Eurocrats were most often on détachement in Brussels, it was natural for them to be in touch with the French government and various interest groups on a regular basis. This chapter discusses Jacques Delors as a member of the more restricted group of French Commissioners in the Brussels bureaucracy. If in France constitutional reform led to a shortening of the president's term in office, in Finland constitutional reform had more far-reaching effects. The Finnish reform changed the relationships between central political institutions, the presidency, the government and the parliament, empowering government and parliament and disempowering the president.

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