in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union
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This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book describes the democratic stalemate in European politics through an examination of European integration as a general transformation of practices, norms and identities. It also describes France's European policy as an executive political strategy that attempts to influence the shaping of European institutions and common European interests. The book explains the integration of French politicians and civil servants into European institutions, the European Parliament and the European Commission. It examines the constitutional reforms of 2000 in the only two semi-presidential political systems in the European Union, France and Finland. The book analyses the European Parliament elections of 1999 in Finland and France. It demonstrates that European Parliament elections have also provided French intellectuals with an opportunity to reaffirm their role in public debate.


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