This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book considers the transformation of Catholicism and the Catholic Church in the nineteenth century. It reveals that before the late nineteenth century, widespread diversity characterised European Catholicism. The collision of old and new Catholics forced a reappraisal of the state of the church which intensified as the number of Irish in Scotland increased. The book highlights the progressive lay element that emerged in the 1830s and 1840s and worked to inject money, time and energy into the church. It argues that the communities of teaching sisters were actively renegotiating the boundaries of education by committing themselves to the development of elementary and female education. The book also considers the rise in devotional activity and associational or organisational culture between 1870 and 1900.