Remaking militarized environments in the wake of defeat (1871–1914)
in Mobilizing nature
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In the wake of defeat and under the shadow of German military might, the Third Republic remade France's militarized environments. The Third Republic's attempt to rejuvenate France and rebuild its army reverberated environmentally through the creation of new militarized environments. Although most scholarly attention has focused on the creation of urban militarized environments, this chapter argues that rural sites were integral to the efforts to remake army and nation. The chapter explores the army's mobilization of forests to strengthen France's eastern border and the harnessing of ever-larger expanses of the French countryside for its training purposes. As the army mobilized new sites for war preparation, thousands of new recruits came to live and work in the camps under universal conscription laws. The chapter also explores the testing and development of new military technologies and weapons.

Mobilizing nature

The environmental history of war and militarization in Modern France


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