Gerasimos Gerasimos
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Managing mobility as a host-state issue-linkage strategy
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This final chapter examines how cross-border mobility may also feature in issue-linkage strategies, as migrants and refugees are employed as instruments of leverage by host states. This chapter focuses on two types of mobility as leverage – labour and forced migration. In terms of the former, the chapter first examines how Egypt was faced with numerous attempts by Arab host-states to target Egyptian migrant communities within their borders, predominantly unskilled or low-skilled, as instruments of coercion. Egyptian migrant communities were faced with various forms of abuse, including incarceration and torture, or, more frequently, expulsion from their host-states, who sought to take benefit from Egypt’s socio-economic dependence on labour migration. Two types of issue-linkage strategies were employed by Arab states against Egypt: in the first, Libyan coercion emerged as personalistic cross-regime relations between the sending and host-state broke down, namely between Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Libyan Prime Minister Anwar Gaddafi; the second type of strategy aimed to secure specific policy concessions from Egypt, as has been the case with Iraq or, in the post-2011 era, with Libya and Jordan.

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