This chapter outlines the theoretical framing of medical tourism that we
deploy in the analysis presented in Beautyscapes. It draws on Appadurai’s
notion of disjunctive global flows and ‘scapes’, combining this with
insights from work on networks and from assemblage thinking, in order to
theorise how cosmetic surgery tourism is assembled by heterogeneous actors,
and to show how this coming together is contingent and emergent. Global
flows come together in particular places at particular times, and this
notion helps us understand the comings-together that characterise cosmetic
surgery tourism. Empirical detail drawn from our fieldwork enables us to
develop a nuanced analysis of how networks are assembled and how cosmetic
surgery tourism takes place and makes place. Our analysis is guided by a
further conceptual framing that we also introduce in this chapter: Mol’s
discussion of the logic of care and the logic of choice. Rather than simply
counterposing these two logics, we see them as intricately entangled in the
ways in which cosmetic surgery tourism is understood by the many actors with
a stake in it.
This chapter critically evaluates characterisations of the EDL as ‘Islamophobic’. It outlines debates about how we might define and measure ‘Islamophobia’, focusing on the question of whether Islamophobia is a new, and distinct, phenomenon or consists primarily in anti-Muslim attitudes, which are adequately understood within the existing notion of cultural racism. It provides a detailed exploration of the nature and content of perceptions of, and attitudes towards, Islam among EDL activists and shows how Islam is singled out as a ‘problem’ in a way that other aspects of multicultural society are not. In order to sustain claims to non-racism, therefore, a strategic distinction between Islam and Muslims is drawn; the object of hostility, it is claimed, is Islamic doctrine or teachings not its followers as individuals or racialised groups. However, being anti-Islam does not exclude being anti-Muslim also. Drawing on observational evidence as well as interviews, the chapter demonstrates considerable slippage in distinctions between Islam and Muslims as the object of hostility as well as, especially in the context of demonstrations, the use of generalised terms of abuse towards Muslims.
This chapter discusses the emotional and affective dimensions of EDL activism by exploring the pleasures of the ‘demo buzz’ and the ontological security generated by relationships formed in the EDL ‘family’. It outlines theoretical debates on emotion and affect in social movements and adopts the notion of ‘affective practice’ to understand and explore the role of emotion in EDL activism. It shows how street demonstrations are experienced by respondents as not only a place for achievement of the rational goal of ‘getting your message across’ but also, emotionally, as ‘a good day out’ with its associated pleasures (including, for some, violence and ‘disorder’). The forms and means by which the emotional collective is formed within the EDL (the use of symbols, colours, chanting and other performative acts) is discussed and arguments that these emotions are instrumentally orchestrated from above are refuted. Finally, the chapter considers the ‘reciprocal emotions’ - close, affective ties of friendship, love, solidarity, and loyalty - generated within social movements. These emotions – expressed through respondents’ understanding of the EDL as ‘one big family’ - arise out of, and enhance, the pleasures of shared activism but can work to undermine as well as strengthen group bonds.