Class and ethnicity
in Contested identities
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This chapter considers the relationship among class, ethnicity and identity in nineteenth-century religious congregations by first examining the social status and the national origins of religious institutes. Some of the native English congregations offered a model of religious life that differed from that existing in French, Belgian or Irish congergations founded in England. The chapter examines the social composition of select congregations and congregation leadership to discern further nuances to the relationship between class, ethnicity and leadership. Women from the English gentry and aristocracy did enter active, simple-vowed congregations, but preferred French, Belgian or Irish congregations rather than native English congregations. Among those women who were professed as Faithful Companions of Jesus, there was also a slightly higher proportion of Irish-born lay sisters than in the convent population. Fifty-five per cent of the lay sisters were Irish-born but only forty-eight per cent of the population was Irish.

Contested identities

Catholic women religious in nineteenth-century England and Wales

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