Chapter 5 is the second of the two chapters that focus on the ‘national’ identities of immigrants to later medieval England as evidenced by contemporary governmental records. It identifies five groups: the French (who were often identified and subdivided by region as the Bretons, the Normans, the Gascons, etc.); the ‘Dutch’ (a catch-all term to describe people from the Low Countries and the area covered by modern Germany); Scandinavians and Icelanders; the Italians; the Iberians; and the ‘Greeks’ (a term used to describe a variety of people from the eastern Mediterranean). The French and the ‘Dutch’ appeared in comparatively large numbers in England, while those from the Mediterranean, though much fewer in number, were often socially and economically prominent. The chapter considers the impact of the Hundred Years War on patterns of migration between France and England. It also discusses the consequences of Ottoman advance in the eastern Mediterranean as a contributing factor to the migration of ‘Greeks’ into England in the later fifteenth century.