Violence and carnival
Renegotiating public space 1970–2008
in Civic identity and public space
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Extreme political violence of the ‘Troubles’ in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s forced radical changes in the use of public space. The Twelfth of July, formerly an unchallenged part of civic ritual, now came to be seen as problematic. The Lord Mayor’s Show, a celebration of commerce and unionism, dwindled before being revived as an apolitical, carnival-style event. St Patrick’s Day, formerly associated solely with Nationalism, was promoted, with mixed success, as a cross-community festival.

Civic identity and public space

Belfast since 1780

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