Up until the 1980s, critics generally espoused the view, encouraged by the author himself, that the world created in Robbe-Grillet's work bore little or no resemblance to the real world, and the text was to be regarded as non-mimetic and non-referential, as art not life. Robbe-Grillet's sexual obsessions led him to draw heavily in his cinematic oeuvre on popular cultural sources, particularly on 'softcore' films of the 1960s and 1970s. Pornography is conventionally distinguished from erotica as a form of low or popular as opposed to high culture. Robbe-Grillet himself always spoke of eroticism and not pornography, a choice of language designed to position his work ultimately in high culture, satirical intentions justifying the presence of explicit sex and nudity. L'Eden et après, Robbe-Grillet argues, attacks the very stereotypes that imprison women in roles constructed by men. The chapter pursues this argument with reference to Glissements progressifs du plaisir.
As moving pictures became a reality during 1895-6, Europe's crowned heads discovered the new medium and what it could do for their image. The earliest royal films made in Britain showed Victoria's extended family with a new informality, and were eagerly viewed by their subjects. However, it was the staging of Victoria's 1897 Diamond Jubilee as a vast procession through London, filmed by 18 companies whose products were distributed throughout Britain and the distant territories of the Empire, that showed how powerfully film could project the monarchy in a new way - immediate, accessible and impressive. Victoria's successors, her sons Edward and George, came to the throne having grasped the potential of film. Meanwhile, two of her relations Kaiser Wilhelm and Tsar Nicholas, were also the subjects of early filming Nicholas's coronation in 1896 was the first such event to be recorded on film, but a record of the disaster that followed, when thousands were killed in a crowd panic, was quickly suppressed. Nicholas would remain suspicious of film as a mass medium, while enjoying it as a private family record, until he gave permission for a film to celebrate the tercentenary of the Romanov dynasty in 1913 - the same year that a full-scale acted tribute to Victoria, Sixty Years a Queen, appeared.