In April 1975, Joseph Losey officially became a tax exile after relocating himself from Chelsea to Paris because of tax problems. In his The Assassination of Trotsky and Les Routes du Sud, the two political exiles, Leon Trotsky (walled up in his Mexico City compound) and Jean Larrea, Semprun's French-based Spanish loyalist, are reduced to mere shadows of their former selves and they led hermetic lives of purely textual production. Much of this dearth of topical relevance is rooted in Losey's own exile, in particular his lack of active political affiliation with the British left, as well as his estrangement from working-class culture as a whole. By 1976, Losey had settled into the non-activist niche of 'personalized politics'. He admitted that his youthful need for the ideological safety net of a rigid political organization had been replaced by a more fluid political contingency.
As moving pictures became a reality during 1895-6, Europe's crowned heads discovered the new medium and what it could do for their image. The earliest royal films made in Britain showed Victoria's extended family with a new informality, and were eagerly viewed by their subjects. However, it was the staging of Victoria's 1897 Diamond Jubilee as a vast procession through London, filmed by 18 companies whose products were distributed throughout Britain and the distant territories of the Empire, that showed how powerfully film could project the monarchy in a new way - immediate, accessible and impressive. Victoria's successors, her sons Edward and George, came to the throne having grasped the potential of film. Meanwhile, two of her relations Kaiser Wilhelm and Tsar Nicholas, were also the subjects of early filming Nicholas's coronation in 1896 was the first such event to be recorded on film, but a record of the disaster that followed, when thousands were killed in a crowd panic, was quickly suppressed. Nicholas would remain suspicious of film as a mass medium, while enjoying it as a private family record, until he gave permission for a film to celebrate the tercentenary of the Romanov dynasty in 1913 - the same year that a full-scale acted tribute to Victoria, Sixty Years a Queen, appeared.