This chapter examines some of the ways in which the use of popular and traditional songs by transgendered performers in a selection of iconic post-Franco Spanish films impacts on cinematic, narrative and identificatory structures in those films. It asks how the work of song and the reworking of gendered stereotypes are played out in relation to each other. The chapter sets out both to elaborate some of the specific mechanisms of what might be termed 'song work' in these films and to re-examine the oft-made assertion that, in Spanish culture after Franco, transgender performative camp comes to stand for the Spanish Transition to democracy itself. It provides an analysis of three films in various ways with the relationships between transgression and the boundary. The films are Ocaña: Retrat intermittent, La mala educación, and 20 centímetros.
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book considers memory as a specific framework for the study of popular film, intervening in growing debates about the status and function of memory in cultural life and discourse. It examines the relationship between official and popular history and the constitution of memory narratives in and around the production and consumption of American cinema. The book explores the political stakes of cinematic discourse in its production of national memory. It also examines the discursive and institutional apparatus that has come to support the memory of Classic Hollywood in British cultural life. The book also considers both the presence of music and colour in nostalgia films of the 1990s and the impact of digital and video technologies on the representational determinants of mediated memory.