The 1945 Pan-African Congress’ Declaration ended with the words ‘Colonial and Subject People of the World, Unite’. To attempt to achieve at least West African unity, Joe Appiah and Kwame Nkrumah, who had attended the Congress, went to Paris to interest activists there. A conference in London followed at which the West African National Secretariat (WANS) was formed. Their aim was to ‘push forward the struggle for West African National Unity and Absolute Independence’. Kwame Nkrumah was appointed secretary. Naturally, contact was made with as many organisations and activists in West Africa as possible. Nkrumah also travelled around the UK, not only to seek support for WANS, but as a member of the Coloured Workers’ Association, campaigning against the many forms of racial discrimination in the UK. Why do I think this was the beginning of the Cold War in at least Ghana? The Cold War was attempts by the West to curtail support for the USSR and prevent its expansion. The 1948 ‘riots’ in the Gold Coast were attributed by the government to Communist activism. MI5, which was in collaboration with the CIA, set up offices there and in Nigeria. So the Cold War began.