The EU as a security provider in Eastern Europe
in Defending Eastern Europe
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"The EU has supplemented NATO defense efforts in Eastern Europe in significant ways, most notably in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Emergence of its CSDP has enabled the EU to develop organized defense plans. However, utilization of soft power that centers on diplomacy has been their primary tool in additional to the dispatch of peacekeeping troops. There are 11 states in the region that have obtained membership in the organization and contributed to its many missions. EU solidarity in support of the region during the Russian challenge of 2005–7 was more effective than its comparable efforts during the later energy security crisis that included the Nord Stream 2 challenge from Moscow. However, current problems for the European Union stem from outside challenges by Russia, China, and the United States, as well as from intense nationalist movements from within.

Defending Eastern Europe

The defense policies of new NATO and EU member states

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